Paradigm Details:

Language: () Cora-ICR-NE.


System Type: None

Source: Casad (1984).

Comment: The orthography used in the source is an Americanist one, which I have converted to more standard IPA symbols. In particular, <c> > ʦ, <ny> > ɲ, <ty> > c. Acute accents indicate tone and have been retained; doubled vowel letters indicate length. There are a number of different slots, each with their own form: subject prefixes, subject particles, pausal subjects, and independent subjects. Likewise for possessors there are both bound and free forms. Here we use the independent subject forms, and the independent object forms, which also function as possessor markers. This analytic distinction affects the pattern of syncretism, since distinctions are made in the bound forms (e.g. 2sgO mwa- is distinct from 2sg possessor a-) which are not made in the free forms (mwéeʦi would cover both 2sgO and 2sgPoss). Should we decide to go back and include the bound forms, they are on p. 297. There are no specialised third person pronouns, these being shown by demonstratives (p. 245, 297). The 'there' form is chosen here as it appears to be the most neutral in discourse, and in any case the paterning of syncretism is independent of which form is chosen. Here again there are some tricky decisions, with different forms for both preverbal and postverbal: I have entered just the postverbal forms, since that is the only position available to subject, object and possessor alike, across all number values: for some reason no form is given for plural pre-verbal forms.

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular (í)ɲaa (í)ɲaa (í)ɲeeʦi (í)ɲeeʦi
1st (excl) Person Dual (í)can (í)can (í)cehmi (í)cehmi
1st (excl) Person Plural (í)can (í)can (í)cehmi (í)cehmi
1st (incl) Person Dual (í)can (í)can (í)cehmi (í)cehmi
1st (incl) Person Plural (í)can (í)can (í)cehmi (í)cehmi
2nd Person Singular mwáa mwáa mwéeʦi mwéeʦi
2nd Person Dual mwán mwán mwéhmi mwéhmi
2nd Person Plural mwán mwán mwéhmi mwéhmi
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 amɨhna amɨhna pamɨhna pamɨhna
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 amɨhna amɨhna pamɨhna pamɨhna
3rd Person Dual mamɨhna mamɨhna mamɨhna mamɨhna
3rd Person Plural mamɨhna mamɨhna mamɨhna mamɨhna