Paradigm Details:

Language: (mal) Malayalam.


System Type: F

Source: Asher and Kumari (1997).

Comment: The forms listed below are given in a phonemic transcription consistent with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), with one partial exception. Specifically, note that while /r/ represents an alveolar tap/trill, as in the IPA, /ɾ/ here represents what is described as a 'voiced apico-dentialveolar tap with a distinct palatal resonance' (Asher and Kumari 1997:418). Also note, the languages possesses 3S and 3PL neuter pronouns in all case forms (Asher and Kumari 1997:258-64) which are not listed below. In addition, while there is a gender distinction between 3S masculine (Gender 1 below) and 3S feminine (Gender 2) pronouns this distinction does not exist for 3PL forms with the sole gender distinction being that between shared masculine/feminine forms and neuter forms (Asher and Kumari 1997:258-64).

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular ɲaan̪ ɲaan̪ enne en̪re
1st (excl) Person Dual ɲaŋŋaɭ ɲaŋŋaɭ ɲaŋŋaɭe ɲaŋŋaɭuʈe
1st (excl) Person Plural ɲaŋŋaɭ ɲaŋŋaɭ ɲaŋŋaɭe ɲaŋŋaɭuʈe
1st (incl) Person Dual n̪ammaɭ - n̪ammaɭ - n̪ammaɭe - n̪ammuʈe -
1st (incl) Person Plural n̪ammaɭ - n̪ammaɭ - n̪ammaɭe - n̪ammuʈe -
2nd Person Singular n̪ii n̪ii n̪inne n̪in̪re
2nd Person Dual n̪iŋŋaɭ n̪iŋŋaɭ n̪iŋŋaɭe n̪iŋŋaɭuʈe
2nd Person Plural n̪iŋŋaɭ n̪iŋŋaɭ n̪iŋŋaɭe n̪iŋŋaɭuʈe
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 aʋan̪ - aʋan̪ - aʋan̪e aʋaɭuʈe
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 aʋaɭ - aʋaɭ - aʋaɭe at̪in̪re
3rd Person Dual aʋaɾ - aʋaɾ - aʋaɾe aʋaɾuʈe
3rd Person Plural aʋaɾ - aʋaɾ - aʋaɾe aʋaɾuʈe