Paradigm Details:

Language: (mpc) Mangarayi.


System Type: F

Source: Merlan (1989).

Comment: Demonstrative pronouns, which mark a 'distant/non-distant' distinction, are used in place of third person S, A, and O personal pronouns (Merlan 1989:99). The third person forms listed below are the non-distant forms, see Merlan (1989:107 ff) for a full discussion of all demonstrative pronouns and the properties of the distance distinction. In addition to this, in all persons trial forms exist for all functions S, A, O, and Poss. See Merlan (1989:102) for the first and second person nominative (= S and A) and accusative ( = O) trial forms, Merlan (1989:110) for the third person (= demonstrative) nominative (= S and A) and accusative (= O) trial forms, and Merlan (1989:106) for the trial possessives.

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular ŋaja ŋaja ŋan -ŋanɟu
1st (excl) Person Dual ŋiɾ ŋiɾ ŋiɾaŋan -ŋiɾa
1st (excl) Person Plural ŋiɭa ŋiɭa ŋijanŋan -ŋiɳja
1st (incl) Person Dual ŋi ŋi ŋin -ŋiga
1st (incl) Person Plural ŋaɭa ŋaɭa ŋajanŋan -ŋaɳja
2nd Person Singular ɲaŋgi ɲaŋgi ɲan -ŋaŋga
2nd Person Dual ɳuɾ ɳuɾ ɳuɾaŋan -ɳuɾa
2nd Person Plural ɳuɭa ɳuɭa ɳujanŋan ɳuɳja
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 ɳaɾiwa ɳaɾiwa ɲiŋgiwa - -ɳawu
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 ŋaɭiwa ŋaɭiwa ŋangiwa - -ŋajawu
3rd Person Dual gaɾanwa gaɾanwa gaɾaŋan -wuɾa
3rd Person Plural gaɭaɾiwa gaɭaɾiwa gajanŋan -wuɳja