System Type: F
Source: Sneddon (2006).
Comment: The forms listed below are given using the system of transcription employed in Sneddon (2006). The first person singular form 'gua' listed below most commonly occurs in the speech of younger people and in informal situations (Sneddon 2006:59). The form 'saya' is the first person singular pronoun most favoured by older speakers (Sneddon 2006:59). In addition, the form 'gue' is described by Snedden (2006:59) as occurring in free variation with 'gua', although the latter form occurs more frequently in the speech of most people. In addition to this, the first person plural form 'kita' functions as both an exclusive and inclusive form with the Formal Indonesian exclusive pronoun 'kami' occurring very infrequently and often in a way that does not preserve its function as an exclusive pronoun (Sneddon 2006:62). With respect to the second person pronoun 'elu', a range of other forms, including a very seldom occurring set of exclusively plural second person forms, are also described by Sneddon (2006:64-6). Finally, the third person singular pronoun 'dia' can function as a plural form in a certain number of contexts although this usage is not typical for human referents (Sneddon 2006:67-8).
|1st (excl) Person Singular||gua||gua||gua||gua|
|1st (excl) Person Dual||kita||kita||kita||kita|
|1st (excl) Person Plural||kita||kita||kita||kita|
|1st (incl) Person Dual||kita||kita||kita||kita|
|1st (incl) Person Plural||kita||kita||kita||kita|
|2nd Person Singular||elu||elu||elu||elu|
|2nd Person Dual||elu||elu||elu||elu|
|2nd Person Plural||elu||elu||elu||elu|
|3rd Person Singular Gender 1||dia||dia||dia||dia|
|3rd Person Singular Gender 2||dia||dia||dia||dia|
|3rd Person Dual||mereka||mereka||mereka||mereka|
|3rd Person Plural||mereka||mereka||mereka||mereka|