Paradigm Details:

Language: (hix) Hixkaryána.


System Type: F

Source: Derbyshire (1979).

Comment: There is no regular number marking system on nouns or pronouns in the language (Derbyshire 1979:126). There is, however, a collective/non-collective distinction with the collective used where the 'focus is on a group' (Derbyshire 1979:126). These collective forms are listed below in the plural and dual entries of the paradigm while non-collective forms are listed in the singular entries. Additionally, Derbyshire (1979:96-7) describes a significant number of allopmorphic variants of the possessive pronouns listed below while also noting that nominal suffixes (not listed below) which mark possessedness and number also distinguish between present and past possession (Derbyshire 1979:98-100). Finally, each of the animate third person A, S, and O pronouns have distinct non-deictic, near-deictic, medial-deictic, and remote-deictic forms (Derbyshire 1979:127). Pronouns used to refer to inanimates do not have distinct deictic and non-deictic forms (Derbyshire 1979:127). The animate non-deictic variants are listed below.

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular uro uro uro ro-
1st (excl) Person Dual amna amna amna y-
1st (excl) Person Plural amna amna amna y-
1st (incl) Person Dual kɨwyamo kɨwyamo kɨwyamo kɨ-
1st (incl) Person Plural kɨwyamo kɨwyamo kɨwyamo kɨ-
2nd Person Singular omoro omoro omoro o-
2nd Person Dual omnyamo omnyamo omnyamo o-
2nd Person Plural omnyamo omnyamo omnyamo o-
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 noro noro noro ɨ-
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 noro noro noro ɨ-
3rd Person Dual nyamoro nyamoro nyamoro ɨ-
3rd Person Plural nyamoro nyamoro nyamoro ɨ-