Paradigm Details:

Language: (tvl) Tuvaluan.


System Type: F

Source: Besnier (2000).

Comment: Besnier (1999:264) states that case is marked on both nouns and pronouns through a system of prepositions and preposition-like particles. Given that these case marking elements are treated as independent words, the pronoun forms listed below are given without case markers. In addition to this, please note that the possessive pronouns of this language are complex elements constructed out of an article morpheme followed by an affix indicating possessive class (alienable vs. inalienable) which is in turn followed by a reduced personal pronoun suffix (Besnier 1999:399). Only the reduced personal pronoun suffixes are listed below. Free possessive pronouns are marked along several dimensions: the number and person of the possessor, for singular possessors there is a distinction between alienable and inalienable, and there is also a distinction made for whether the possessed is singular indefinite / singular definite / plural indefinite / plural indefinite. The different combination of these variables results in a more complex paradigm than is allowed for here, which is why the original person entering the data entered the bound forms.

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular au au au -ku , -ku
1st (excl) Person Dual maaua maaua maaua -maa , -maa
1st (excl) Person Plural maatou maatou maatou -motou , -motou
1st (incl) Person Dual taaua taaua taaua -taa , -taa
1st (incl) Person Plural taatou taatou taatou -ttou , -ttou
2nd Person Singular koe koe koe -u , -u
2nd Person Dual koulua koulua koulua -lua , -lua
2nd Person Plural koutou koutou koutou -ootou , -ootou
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 ia ia ia -na , -na
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 ia ia ia -na , -na
3rd Person Dual laaua laaua laaua -laa , -laa
3rd Person Plural laatou laatou laatou -lotou , -lotou