System Type: F
Source: Tosco (2001).
Comment: The forms listed below are given in the system of transcription employed by Tosco (2001). In addition, note that the third person O form /ʰí/ listed below is, in the terminology of Tosco (2001), a 'Verbal' pronoun that only functions as a third person O form where a nominal object has been left dislocated for pragmatic or syntactic reasons (Tosco 2001:221). In this case /ʰí/ appears in the position from which the object has been 'moved' (Tosco 2001:221). Where no left dislocation occurs, Tosco (2001:221) suggests that (apparently) generic nouns such as /mí/ ('man') serve the function of third person object pronouns. Despite this, Tosco (2001) does not provide discussion that is sufficiently explicit to allow for the determination of precisely what forms are used in place of third person O pronouns, which are listed as absent in the paradigm of 'Object' pronouns (Tosco 2001:211). Thus, subject to future review, /ʰí/ is listed below in order to fill all cells. Finally, the forms listed by Tosco (2001:210-14) as the 'Subject' pronouns are given below as the A/S forms. These pronouns may only appear in what Tosco (2001) terms 'Topicalised' sentences with a 'Perfect' or 'Dependent' verbal form. While elements of two other sets of pronouns may also function as A/S pronouns with other verbal forms (see Tosco 2001:210-14 for discussion), 'Perfect' verbal forms are by far the most common in the language and are 'used for any action unless it is specifically describing an event that has not yet occurred at the time of utterance' (Tosco 2001:264). Hence, the 'Subject' pronouns are reproduced below as the most commonly occurring elements that may serve the A/S function.
|1st (excl) Person Singular||yáa||yáa||ye||cú -|
|1st (excl) Person Dual||ɲaaɲi||ɲaaɲi||ɲí||kíɲɲu|
|1st (excl) Person Plural||ɲaaɲi||ɲaaɲi||ɲí||kíɲɲu|
|1st (incl) Person Dual||ké -||ké -||ɲí||kúnnu|
|1st (incl) Person Plural||ké -||ké -||ɲí||kúnnu|
|2nd Person Singular||kúo||kúo||ko||kú -|
|2nd Person Dual||ʔití||ʔití||ʔitíni||kíccu|
|2nd Person Plural||ʔití||ʔití||ʔitíni||kíccu|
|3rd Person Singular Gender 1||ʰé||ʰé||ʰí||=lé -|
|3rd Person Singular Gender 2||ʰé||ʰé||ʰí||=lé -|
|3rd Person Dual||ʰé||ʰé||ʰí||=lé -|
|3rd Person Plural||ʰé||ʰé||ʰí||=lé -|