Paradigm Details:

Language: (pmi) Northern Pumi (Northwest Yunnan Dialect).


System Type: F

Source: Ding (2014).

Comment: Noun phrases, including pronouns, are marked in a number of cases for semantic function (Ding 2014:138-9). These markings are treated by Ding (2014:138 ff) as postpositions, that is as objects morphosyntactically distinct from the element being marked. Thus the semantic role markers are not listed with the forms below. The one exception to this is the group of plural possessive pronouns in which the genitive postposition is incorporated into the pronoun (Ding 2014:166). In addition, distinct third person pronouns exist for present and absent referents (Ding 2014:90). The forms for present referents are listed.

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular ɜ˥ ɜ˥ ɜ˥ ɜ˥
1st (excl) Person Dual ɑ˩dzɑ̃˥ ɑ˩dzɑ̃˥ ɑ˩dzɑ̃˥ ɑ˩dzɑ̃˥H
1st (excl) Person Plural ɑ˩ɹə˥ ɑ˩ɹə˥ ɑ˩ɹə˥ ɑ˩ɹɑ˥
1st (incl) Person Dual e˩dzɑ̃˥ e˩dzɑ̃˥ e˩dzɑ̃˥ e˩dzɑ̃˥
1st (incl) Person Plural e˩ɹɑ˥ e˩ɹɑ˥ e˩ɹɑ˥ e˩ɹɑ˥
2nd Person Singular ne˧˥ ne˧˥ ne˧˥ ne˧˥
2nd Person Dual ne˩dzɑ̃˥ ne˩dzɑ̃˥ ne˩dzɑ̃˥ ne˩dzɑ̃˥
2nd Person Plural ne˩ɹə˥ ne˩ɹə˥ ne˩ɹə˥ ne˩dzɑ̃˥
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 ni˥˩ ni˥˩ ni˥˩ ni˥˩
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 ni˥˩ ni˥˩ ni˥˩ ni˥˩
3rd Person Dual ni˥dzɑ̃˩ ni˥dzɑ̃˩ ni˥dzɑ̃˩ ni˥dzɑ̃˩
3rd Person Plural ni˥ɹə˩ ni˥ɹə˩ ni˥ɹə˩ ni˥ɹɑ˩