Paradigm Details:

Language: (hau) Hausa.


System Type: F

Source: Newman (2000).

Comment: The forms below are given in the system of transcription adopted by Newman (2000). Also note that true independent S and A pronouns do not occur in the language. Instead, a set of complex elements each consisting of a person and tense/aspect marker exists (Newman 2000:485-6). Newman (2000:485-6) refers to the person markers as ‘weak subject pronouns’ and notes that these elements occur in two paradigms; the light and the heavy paradigms. The members of the light paradigm have been listed here as the representatives of the S and A forms in the language as they occur in a wider variety of contexts than the members of the heavy paradigm (Newman 2000:485-6). Finally, two possessive pronoun paradigms exist; one which is used with a masculine or plural possessum and another used exclusively with singular, feminine possessed nouns ending in '-a(a)' (Newman 2000:482). The paradigm used with masculine and plural possessed nouns is listed here.

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular ni - ni - ni -nā
1st (excl) Person Dual mu mu mu -nmù
1st (excl) Person Plural mu mu mu -nmù
1st (incl) Person Dual mu mu mu -nmù
1st (incl) Person Plural mu mu mu -nmù
2nd Person Singular ka - ka - ka - -nkà -
2nd Person Dual ku ku ku -nkù
2nd Person Plural ku ku ku -nkù
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 ya ya shi -nsà -
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 ta ta ta -ntà -
3rd Person Dual su su su -nsù
3rd Person Plural su su su -nsù