Paradigm Details:

Language: (twe) Teiwa.

Label: clean


System Type: None

Source: Klamer (2010).

Comment: Owen's cleaned up version. Removed long A and S forms (focus) retained short forms (topic). Only retained syllabic forms (used before C initial roots). The paradigm below follows the following statement: "The object prefixes have animate referents (humans or animals), the object pronouns may be used to refer to both animate and inanimate objects" (Klamer 2010: 78). This does not entirely match, however, with Klamer's statement elsewhere: "For third person referents, a free pronoun is used if it is inanimate. If it is animate, it is expressed with a verbal prefix, and an optional additional NP." (ibid.: 166-167). The third person plural "[i]'in and gi'in refer to a group of people outside the phyiscal and/or narrative context, translated as `elsewhere' here. In practice, the use of these pronouns typically implies that the speaker cannot see the referents because they are at a different location, or existed at a different time." (ibid.: 79). "Teiwa has a set of dual pronouns that can be used to encode subjects and to conjoin nominals." (ibid.: 82). It seems, however, that the `plural' forms are generally used to refer to two participants, hence their presence in the `dual' boxes as well. "Teiwa has two pronouns that refer to third person referents that are inanimate: the pronouns i `' refers to a location, and the pronoun in `it, thing' refers to an entity." (ibid.: 85).

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular na na naʔan na-
1st (excl) Person Dual niraxau niraxau niʔin ni-
1st (excl) Person Plural ni ni niʔin ni-
1st (incl) Person Dual piraxau piraxau piʔin pi-
1st (incl) Person Plural pi pi piʔin pi-
2nd Person Singular ha ha haʔan ha-
2nd Person Dual yiraxau yiraxau yiʔin yi-
2nd Person Plural yi yi yiʔin yi-
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 a a gaʔan a-
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 a a gaʔan a-
3rd Person Dual iraxau iraxau iman a- , ga-
3rd Person Plural a , i a , i iman a- , ga-