Paradigm Details:

Language: (vma) Martuthunira.


System Type: F

Source: Dench (1995).

Comment: "The third person plural pronoun has the very restricted function of serving as a definite anaphor for plural noun phrases. It refers to a group of entities already established in text and specifically implies that the membership of that group has not changed. This emphasis on no change in group membership is unimportant for anaphoric reference to noun phrases denoting individuals (singular) or pairs of individuals (duals) and it is thus not surprising that pularna has no singular or dual counterparts." p103 Demonstratives are used for 3sg reference.

Pronoun Paradigm:

  A S O Poss.
1st (excl) Person Singular ngayu ngayu nganaju nganaju
1st (excl) Person Dual ngaliya ngaliya ngaliyaa ngaliyawu
1st (excl) Person Plural nganarna nganarna nganarnaa nganarnawu
1st (incl) Person Dual ngali ngali ngalii ngaliwu
1st (incl) Person Plural ngaliwa ngaliwa ngaliwaa ngaliwawu
2nd Person Singular kartu kartu kartungu kartungu
2nd Person Dual nhuwala nhuwala nhuwalaa nhuwalawu
2nd Person Plural nhuwana nhuwana nhuwanaa nhuwanawu
3rd Person Singular Gender 1 nhiyu - nhiyu - yirna - yirnawu -
3rd Person Singular Gender 2 ngunhu - ngunhu - ngurnu - ngurnuwu -
3rd Person Dual pularna pularna pularna pularnawu
3rd Person Plural pularna pularna pularna pularnawu